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MEDICAL COLLEGES IN NORTH 
CAROLINA 



by 

J. Howell Way, M.D., F.A.C.P. 

and 
L. B. McBrayer, M. D., F. A. C. P. 



<*, 



Read before the Medical Society of the State of North Carolina 
Pinehurst. Wednesday. May 2nd. 1928 



MEDICAL COLLEGES IN NORTH 
CAROLINA 

b, 

J. Howell Way, M.D., F. A.C.P. 

and 
L. B. McBrayer, M. D., F. A. C. P. 



136 THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

MEDICAL COLLEGES IN NORTH CAROLINA 

by 

*J. Howell Way, M.D., F.A.C.P. 

and 
L. B. McBrayer, M.D., F.A.C.P. 

In the earlier days of colonial North Carolina the physicians were 
men who had emigrated to America after pursuing their professional 
studies in Europe and for many years quite a number of the State's 
practitioners were young men who had enjoyed the advantages of study 
abroad. Later a large proportion had acquired their rights to pursue 
the profession of medicine by residence in the home of some other prac- 
titioner for a varying period of one to three years. 

Though at times the question of the organization of a college of 
regular medicine was broached in the Medical Society of the State, 
there was usually manifested a disposition adverse to such organiza- 
tion on acount of the small size of Carolina cities not offering much 
field for clinical study, coupled with inadequate funds for securing and 
maintaining proper equipment and teachers. 

THE FIRST MEDICAL COLLEGE TO BE CHARTERED 

IN 
NORTH CAROLINA WAS IN 1866 

The Edenborough Medical College, at a place called "Edenborough 
Community," in Robeson County now Hoke. 

Dr. Hector McLean, the owner and faculty, was born in Robeson 
County May 14th, 1818, and died December 1st, 1877. Flora, wife of 
Dr. Hector McLean was born December 29, 1829, and died January 
31, 1910. His father was born in Inverness, Scotland; all are buried at 
Edenborough in the family cemtery. 

The Community of Edenborough is now in Hoke County but was 
formerly in Robeson County, and was named by the elder McLean 
when he located there. 

Dr. Hector McLean graduated at the University of Louisville about 
1840. He was a very brilliant man, and did many operations that are 



*Note — During Dr. Way's last illness I promised to finish this work for him and bad 
an engagement to stop and go over the material he had, but unfortunately he died three 
days before the date. He had already requested me to secure data in regard to Eden- 
borough Medical College which I did. I have used all of Dr. Way's material a<nd added 
to it or filled in such as seemed desirable. We are also indebted to Doctors Royster, 
Kitchen. Manning, and Lafferty for information furnished — L. B. McBhayer. 



GENERAL SESSIONS 137 

considered difficult even today. Among them were such operations as 
brain surgery, Halstead's operation for cancer of the breast. (One of 
his patients operated on for cancer of the breast, Mrs. Britt, lived to 
be more than eighty years old and died in 1905.) Dr. McLean also 
operated for mastoid, and stone in the bladder, and used a seaton in the 
neck for epilepsy. It is reported that some good woman for whom he 
operated, rinding that one of her negro slaves had epilepsy, gave the 
b'ov to Dr. McLean and he used a seaton which went under the liga- 
mentum nuchae. This negro boy got well of his epilepsy. Dr. McLean 
also did hip joint amputation. 

He owned many slaves; had one of the finest libraries in the State 
at that time, and read much. The home of Dr. Hector McLean was con- 
sidered the best in Robeson County. 

In 1866-67 the Legislature chartered the Edenborough Medical 
College. See Chapter LXVII. Laws 1866-67. For the next ten years 
he continued to conduct this Medical College and graduated a goodly 
number of men every year. 

He had one child, a son, Dr. Angus Murphy McLean, born March 
6, 1855, and who, following his graduation with his father went to 
Philadelphia and took a course in one of the Colleges there. Dr. Angus 
Murphy McLean practised at the same place as his father, and for 
several years in Texas, coming back to Edenborough about 1881, and 
died there of tuberculosis February 8, 1888. 

Dr. Ben Person and his brother Dr. Joseph Person, of Wayne County, 
worked with Dr. McLean at different times. It is said that Dr. Ben 
Person was rather handy with his gun in those days, and would some- 
times have to leave home, and when he did so he buried himself in the 
far distant land known as Robeson County, where there was little 
danger of being molested. This was a great distance at the time because 
of the mode of travel. You can go from the site of Edenborough Medical 
College and the home of Dr. McLean to the county seat of Wayne 
County now on any morning in time for breakfast. 

Dr. Joseph Person was the husband of the famous, or infamous Mrs. 
Joe Person of "Mrs. Joe Person's Remedy'' fame, and it is thought likely 
that the formula for this widely advertised and widely used money- 
making remedy was probably a purloined prescription of Dr. Hector 
McLean. 

The College building was a two-story wooden building with eight 
rooms. The upper story was used as a residence for the medical stu- 
dents and they boarded with Dr. Hector McLean while studying medi- 
cine. The lower floor was used for medical college purposes, including 
an anatomical laboratory. The Edenborough Medical College was con- 
ducted in this building for ten years or little more, up to 1877, at which 
time Dr. Hector McLean died. Dr. McLean did all the teaching, with- 
out any help. The brick building occupied by Dr. McLean as an 
office is now standing. The Medical College building was destroyed 
by fire. 

Dr. McLean's practice extended from Randolph County to the South 
Carolina line, and over into South Carolina. 



5 I 

fro* 



138 THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Here are some of the graduates of Edenborough Medical College — 
Dr. J. D. McNeill, Whiteville; Dr. Malone, Randolph County; Dr. 
William Ray, who lived near where the town of Raeford is now situ- 
ated, at a place called Galatia. Dr. Denby, who lived and died at Hope 
Mills, and many others whose names are difficult to obtain. 

It is a fact that Dr. McLean taught medical students as a preceptor 
many years before the Edenborough Medical College was chartered. 

THE COLLEGE OF 
PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

The American Medical Association has some kind of information to 
to the effect that a medical college by the name of "The College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons" existed in this state at a place called Arlington. 
It was not chartered by the state and so far as known did not graduate 
any one. It is rather doubtful that it ever existed. 

THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The School of Medicine of the University of North Carolina was 
".stablished in 1889 under the direction of Dr. Thomas W. Harris. 
A course in theoretical and practical medicine, as was the custom at 
the time, was offered, but this plant was found impracticable and was 
abandoned in 1886. In 1890, however, a more orderly and logical 
arrangement of subjects of the medical course was begun, and it be- 
came possible for a university, without clinical facilities, to offer in- 
struction in the elementary subjects. Dr. Richard H. Whitehead was 
then elected Dean and Professor of Anatomy, and under his guidance the 
School was reopened and has continued without interruption. In 1900, 
the Medical Course having been extended in the better class of schools 
to four years, the subjects of the first two years were offered at the Uni- 
versity. In 1902 a Clinical Department was established at Raleigh, but 
after several years of unsuccessful effort to provide for its proper sup- 
port, it was abandoned in 1910. In 1908 the School was admitted to 
membership in the Association of American Medical Colleges. 

THE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORIES 

A. The Biological Building, Davie Hall, is occupied by the Depart- 
ments of Zoology and Botany. The building is a rectangular structure of 
pepper-and-salt brick and is divided into a main body and two wings. 
The total length is 125 feet, the depth of the main body 44 feet, that of 
the wings 38 feet. A basement underlies the whole, above which arr 
two floors. The main body has an additional third floor. The building faces 
south, lies to the east of the New East, and adjoins the Arboretum. 

The entrance hall, on the first floor, lighted with large windows on 
either side of the main doorway, serves for the exhibition of museum 
specimens of a more popular character. Back of the entrance hall are 
herbarium, a room for charts and other lecture apparatus, and a room 



GENERAL SESSIONS 139 

for the storage of zoological specimens. The west wing of this floor is 
occupied by a lecture room with a seating capactiy of one hundred and 
twenty, the east wing by a laboratory for the elementary classes in 
zoology and botany. The latter laboratory is arranged for twenty-four 
wall tables with a window in front of each table. 

On the second floor the east wing is occupied by a single large lab- 
oratory for advanced work in zoology and the west wing by a similar 
laboratory for advanced work in botany. Each of these rooms accommo- 
dates twenty workers, and is lighted on three sides with twenty windows. 
The main building on the floor includes private workrooms for the pro- 
fessors of zoology and botany; two storerooms, and a library. On the 
third floor of the main body is a photographic studio with windows on 
the north side extending to the floor, and with skylights. In the basement 
are a fireproof incubator room, a room for micro-photography with ad- 
joining dark room, janitor's shop, and rooms for the storage of heavy 
supplies. The wings in the basement are designed for the keeping of 
live animals and plants for experimental work in botany and zoology. 

THE MEDICAL LABORATORIES 

The new medical building, Caldwell Hall, completed in 1912, is 
located on the south side of Cameron Avenue opposite Davie Hall, facing 
north. This location secures the north light in all of the laboratories used 
for microscopic work. 

To the north is the main building, 117x64. and adjoining this, to the 
south, is a wing, 63x36, each containing a basement and two floors. The 
first floor of the main building is bisected from north to south by an 
entrance hall fourteen feet wide, and from east to west by a corridor 
eight feet wide, dividing the floor space into four equal parts. Each part 
is subdivided into one large class laboratory. 34x27, and two private 
laboratories, lix^ 1 ^. The class laboratories lie next to the entrance hall. 
Those on the north side will be used for microscopic work in histology 
and embryology. They are lighted from five large windows on the north 
side. On the south side are the laboratories for physiological chemistry 
and experimental physiology. 

The private laboratories, located on the farther side of the class lab- 
oratories, are occupied by the instructors. The office of the Dean is in one 
of the private laboratories on this floor, and may be entered from the west 
end of the corridor. 

The second floor is a duplicate of the first floor with the exception that 
the space above the entrance hall is enclosed and is used for the 
Departmental Library. On the north side are the bacteriological and 
pathological laboratories, and on the south side the pharmacological 
laboratory and a lecture room. The laboratories here have the same 
arrangement as those on the first floor. Nearly opposite the pathological 
laboratory is the pathological museum. 

\t the ends of the corridors on the first and second floors are small 
fireproof rooms which will be used for incubators, thermostats, and other 
purposes requiring the continuous use of oil or gas lamps. 

In the basement of the main building provision is made for the care 
of animals. The floors of the several apartments are covered with cement 



HO THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

and are inclined to a common drain pipe. The rooms are well ventilated, 
lighted, and heated, and provided with all necessary facilities for proper 
sanitation. 

On the first floor of the wing adjoining the main building is the main 
lecture hall, and in the rear of this is the amphitheatre for anatomical 
demonstrations. In the rear of the amphitheatre is the Anatomical 
Museum. 

On the second floor of the wing are the anatomical laboratories. In 
the center, and occupying a large part of the floor space, is the main 
dissecting hall, which has a cement floor and is lighted by six large 
windows and two skylights. On either side of a short corridor at the front 
are two private laboratories for special dissections, and at the end of 
the corridor the two laboratories for the instructors. The latter are entered 
from the upper hall of the main building. In the rear of the main dissect- 
ing hall are the lavatory and locker rooms. 

The basement of the wing is divided by a solid brick wall from east 
to west. On the north of this wall are the two storerooms, a photographic 
room, a room for the refrigerating and gas plant; on the south side are 
the storage tanks for cadavers, the incinerator, and other arrangements 
for the care of anatomical material. In the rear end of the basement is 
an entrance hall containing the elevator and the stairs leading to the 
amphitheatre and the dissecting hall. The dissecting hall is supplied 
with hot and cold water. 

The laboratories are well equipped with apparatus for the use of 
the students and the research work of the teachers. Animals are available 
in adequate numbers for all proper experimental work. 

Total number of students who have matriculated, 1190. 

FACULTY FOR THIRD AND FOURTH YEARS AT RALEIGH 1902-10 

H. A. Royster, Dean, Professor of Gynecology 

W. I. Royster, Professor of Medicine. 

A. W. Knox, Professor of Surgery. 

R. H. Lewis, Professor of Diseases of the Eye and of General 
Hygiene. 

K. P. Battle, Professor of Diseases of Ear, Nose, and Throat. 

James McKee, Clinical Professor of Mental and Nervous Diseases. 

A. W. Goodwin, Professor of Diseases of the Skin, and of the Genito- 
urinary System. 

H. M. M. Tucker, Professor of Obstetrics. 

J. W. McGee, Lecturer on Therapeutics. 

R. S. McGeachy, Chief of Dispensary. 

FACULTY AT UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA 1890 

Dr. Richard H. Whitehead, Dean, Professor of Anatomy, 1890-1905, 
Physiology and Materia Medica. 

F. P. Venable, Professor of Chemistry. 
J. A. Holmes, Professor of Botany. 
J. W. Gore, Professor of Physics. 



GENERAL SESSIONS 141 

THE PRESENT TEACHING STAFF IS AS FOLLOWS: 

Harry Woodburn Chase, Ph.D., LL.D., President. 
Isaac Hall Manning, M.D., Dean. 

1905 

THE ADMINISTRATIVE BOARD 

Charles Staples Mangum. A.B., M.D., Professor of Anatomy. 

William DeBerniere MacNider, M.D., Kenan Research Professor 
Pharmacology. 

James Bell Bullitt, A.M., M.D., Professor of Pathology. 

Wesley Critz George, Ph.D., Professor of Histology and Embry- 
ology. 

Daniel Allan MacPherson, Sc.M., Associate Professor of Bacteriology. 

SPECIAL TEACHING STAFF 

Charles Staples Mangum. A.B., M.D., Professor of Anatomy. 

Isaac Hall Manning, M.D., Professor of Physiology. 

William DeBerniere MacNider, M.D., Kenan Research Professor of 
Pharmacology. 

James Bell Bullitt, A.M., M.D., Professor of Pathology. 

Wesley Critz George, Ph.D., Professor of Histology and Embryology. 

John Grover Beard, Ph.G., Professor of Pharmacy. 

Robert Baker Lawson, M.D., Associate Professor of Applied 
Anatomy. 

Daniel Allan MacPherson, Sc.M., Associate Professor of Bacteri- 
ology. 

Frederick Phillips Brooks, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Physiologi- 
cal Chemistry. 

Charles Lee Ferguson, Assistant in Anatomy. 

THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

This College of Medicine has always been of the highest standard 
and has been grade A since the beginning of the grading of medical col- 
leges by Flexner. Its two-year medical students are admitted to the third 
year of any of the best medical schools without examination. 

Dr. William DeB. MacNider has distinguished himself and this 
School of Medicine by his research in Pharmacology. His work is known 
and appreciated throughout the world of medicine. 

THE LEONARD MEDICAL SCHOOL OF SHAW UNIVERSITY 

The Leonard Medical School of Shaw University was established in 
1882 under the presidency of Rev. H. M. Tupper, D.D. The first faculty 
was composed of two physicians: Dr. James McKee, who was Professor 
of Physiology and the Principles and Practices of Medicine, and Dr. F. 
A. Spafford, who was Professor of Anatomy and Materia Medica. 

At the end of the first session the following note was published: "In 
view of the facts that medical education among the colored people is in 
its infancy and also that the support of the students depends almost 



142 THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

entirely upon a system of free scholarships furnished by benevolent 
individuals, the class of the last session which was the first, was under 
the tutorage of Drs. McKee and Spafford. The success, however, has 
been so great that another professor has been added for the ensuing 
year." The additional teacher was Dr. Kemp P. Battle, Jr., who was 
professor of surgery and obstetrics. There were eleven students registered 
during the sessions of 1882-83. A significant appointment appeared in 
the catalogue: "At the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees (of Shaw 
University) Dr. William W. Keen, of Philadelphia, was elected a 
Trustee." Dr. Keen served until 1895. 

A worthy ambition characterized the beginning of the school: "In 
making our second announcement we will state that it is our aim to follow 
as closely as possible the curriculum of study as pursued at Harvard and 
other first-class medical schools." 

With the opening of the next session Dr. Richard B. Haywood became 
professor of the principles and practices of medicine and Dr. Augustus 
W. Knox, professor of clinical and operative surgery, while the chair of 
obstetrics was vacant by reason of Dr. Battle's absence on leave for 
study in Europe. Dr. Richard H. Lewis was appointed visiting surgeon 
to the eye and ear department and consulting surgeon to the Leonard 
Medical School Hospital. Dr. Haywood served but two years and was 
retired on account of illness. Dr. Spafford resigned at the end of the 
session. The long service of Dr. Knox, beginning this year, lasted until 
the school was discontinued in 1914 a period of 31 years. 

In 1884-85 Dr. C. S. Pratt was made dean, the first incumbent to 
hold this office, and also was professor of anatomy and chemistry, the 
chair formerly filled by Dr. Spafford. Both of these gentlemen were from 
New England, coming to the school by invitation of President Tupper. 
Dr. Pratt served only one session. At this time Dr. R. H. Lewis was 
advanced to the professorship of ophthalmology, otology and rhinology, 
starting on his teaching career which also continued until 1914. 

In the year 1886 the school may be said to have entered upon its solid 
existence. Dr. James McKee was appointed dean, and held this office 
continuously until his resignation in 1909. Dr. W. I. Royster succeeded 
to the chair of principles and practice of medicine, filling the position 
until the disbanding in 1914, a term of 28 years. Dr. K. P. Battle, Jr., 
back from Europe, was made professor of physiology and kept the chair 
until the end. His brother, Herbert B. Battle, Ph.D., became professor 
of chemistry and resigned upon his removal from the state in 1899. Dr. 
A. W. Goodwin was appointed professor of anatomy, resigning in 1909. 
In 1892 Dr. G. A. Renn was professor of materia medica, but was suc- 
ceeded the next session by William Simpson, Ph.G., who served until 
1903, and who in addition founded the Department of Pharmacy. The 
chair of chemistry was filled for one year by H. K. Miller, M.S., to be 
followed by J. M. Pickel, Ph D., who held the chair during the remainder 
of the school's existence. 

The faculty which was thus formed in the session of 1886, with the 
few changes noted and with the additions later to be mentioned, virtually 



GENERAL SESSIONS 113 

continued intact for over 25 years. They bore the brunt of the teaching, 
fixed the policy of the institution, gave to it the character which it main- 
tained throughout its life. 

Upon the death of Dr. Tupper, the presidency of Shaw University 
passed into the hands of Charles F. Meserve, LL.D. He assumed charge 
early in the year 1894. One of the immediate objects of his interest was 
the Leonard Medical School. No important changes in the faculty were 
made for several years, but Dr. Meserve built up interest among the 
alumni and prospective students, supplied the teaching force with enthu- 
siasm, and encouraged both professors and pupils to go forward, more 
than that, he raised the requirements, advanced the standards and fought 
for high ideals in medical education. To Meserve more than to any other 
one man connected with the school is due the measure of success attained 
and the reputation of the school for sending out well-prepared colored 
men into the practice of medicine. 

During the thirty-two years of its existence 480 diplomas were issued 
by Leonard Medical School. Of these Dr. Meserve signed an even 400; 
the balance, 80 in number, received Dr. Tupper's signature. The entire 
medical profession of North Carolina is indebted to Charles F. Meserve 
for his insistence upon a thorough grounding in the fundamentals and 
careful training of the Negro men who essayed to enter upon the study 
of medicine. Many of these, now practicing in this state, and in different 
parts of this country, furnish evidence of the influence of this successful 
educator. 

The following physicians were connected with Leonard Medical 
School at various times in its last ten years or more: Dr. H. McKee 
Tucker, professor of histology, pathology and bacteriology (1902) and 
assistant professor of gynecology (1905-1914); C. B. Crowell, Ph.G., 
professor of materia medica (1904-1910); Dr. William Moncure, profes- 
sor of histology, pathology, and bacteriology (1906) and dean (1910- 
1914); Dr. Ralph S. Stevens, professor of "anatomy (1910-1914); Dr. 
Claude O. Abernethy, lecturer on therapeutics (1910) and professor of 
therapeutics (1912-1914); Dr. John B. Watson, instructor in pharma- 
cology and therapeutics (1911-1914); Dr. J. G. Osborne (col.) demon- 
strator in the laboratories of pathology and bacteriology (1911-1914); 
Dr. A. S. Root, professor of pediatrics (1913-1914); Dr. H. B. Hay- 
wood, professor of physical diagnosis (1913-1914). During the last ses- 
sion (1914) Dr. Albert Anderson served as professor of nervous and 
mental diseases, with T. O. Coppedge as associate professor; also Dr. 
A. C. Campbell was professor of physiology and Dr. J. R. Lowery 
professor of gastro-enterology. 

On account of failure to secure adequate funds for endowment to 
meet the demands of the new day, the school was discontinued after 1914. 

NORTH CAROLINA MEDICAL COLLEGE, CHARLOTTE 

The North Carolina Medical College, Charlotte, North Carolina, 
was organized in 1887. at Davidson, as the Davidson School of Medicine, 
a preparatory school, by Paul B. Barringer, and this was taken over by 
Dr. J. P. Munroe in 1889, who was dean and faculty. At this time it was 
a preparatory school, not granting any degree, and in addition it was 



144 THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

quite popular in preparing graduates for examination by the State 
Board of Medical Examiners. In 1893 it was chartered by our legisla- 
ture under above mentioned name and in the same year graduated its first 
class. 

In 1907 it was moved to Charlotte and took the name of the North 
Carolina Medical College, where it continued its regular four years course 
until 1914 when it merged with the Medical College of Virginia, continu- 
ing a nominal existence until it could graduate the three classes that it 
at that time had started and then ceased to exist in 1918. 

According to the American Medical Association the North Carolina 
Medical College was rated in Class B in 1907, but on a further inspection 
in the following year it was found that no rating higher than Class C 
could be granted. Inasmuch as it merged with a Class A school in 1911, 
the classes which were graduated in 1915, 1916, and 1917 were recorded 
as having graduated from a Class B school. In the conditions of the mer- 
ger it was stipulated that the North Carolina Medical College would 
retain a nominal existence until the three remaining classes were gradu- 
ated. 

OFFICERS AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE CORPORATION 

Dr. John P. Munroe, President. 

Dr. Edward C. Register, Vice-President. 

Dr. Andrew J. Crowell, Secretary and Treasurer. 



W. O. Nisbet, M.D., Professor of Diseases of the Digestive System 
and Dean of the Faculty. 

John P. Munroe, M.D., Professor Neurology and Practice of Medi- 
cine. 

I. W. Faison, M.D., Professor of Children and Clinical Medicine. 

E. C. Register, M.D., Professor Emeritus of Practice of Medicine. 

B. C. Nalle, M.D., Professor of the Principles and Practice of Medi- 
cine. 

R. L. Gibbon, M. D., Professor of Practice of Surgery. 

G. W. Pressly, M.D., Professor of Principles of Surgery. 

A. J. Crowell, M.D., Professor of Genito-Urinary Surgery. 

J. P. Matheson, M. D., Professor of Diseases of the Eye, Ear, Nose 
and Throat. 

A. M. Whisnant, M.D., Professor of Diseases of the Eye, Ear, Nose 
and Throat. 

W. D. Witherbee, M.D., Professor of Dermatology and Materia 
Medica. 

C. M. Strong, M.D., Professor of Gynecology. 
C. H. C. Mills, M.D., Professor of Obstetrics. 

C. N. Peeler, M.D., Professor of Anatomy and Chief of the Dispen- 
sary. 

R. H. Lafferty, M.D., Registrar and Professor of Chemistry and 
Physiology. 

L. B. Newell, M.D., Professor of Pathology and Practice of Medicine. 

J. C. Montgomery, M.D., Professor of Anaesthetics. 



GENERAL SESSIONS 145 

R. F. Leinbach, M.D., Professor of Bacteriology. 

J. K. Ross, M.D., Professor of Hygiene and Assistant in Medicine. 

P. M. King, M.D., Professor of Minor Surgery and Bandaging. 

C. A. Misenheimer. M.D., Clinical Professor of Surgery. 

F. L. Black, Professor of Medical Jurisprudence 

J. W. Squires, M.D., Professor of Rectal Diseases and Associate in 
Genito-Urinary Surgery. 

H. W. McKay, M.D., Professor of Physical Diagnosis. 

W. R. Engle, M.D., Clinical Professor of Tuberculosis. 

John Donnelly, M.D., Clinical Instructor of Tuberculosis. 

F. D. Austin. M.D., Clinical Instructor in Rectal Diseases. 

Portia M. McKnight. M.D., Clinical Instructor in Practice of Medi- 
cine. 

Yates W. Faison. M.D., Associate Professor of Diseases of Children 
and Clinical Medicine. 

Oren Moore, M.D.. Associate Professor of Gynecology. 

S. M. Crowell, M.D., Assistant in Neurology. 

C. S. McLaughlin, M.D., Assistant in Anatomy. 

J. Q. Myers, M.D., Assistant in Obstetrics and Clinical Gynecology. 

Otho B. Ross, M.D., Assistant in Pathology and Clinical Medicine. 

THE WAKE FOREST SCHOOL OF MEDICINE AT 
WAKE FOREST 

The Wake Forest School of Medicine, at Wake Forest, an integral 
part of Wake Forest College, was organized in 1902. It gives only the 
first two years of the regular four year medical course and has always 
been grade A since the grading of medical colleges began. 

The following are or have been professors of the Medical Department : 

F. K. Cooke, M.D.. September 1902 — May 1905. Professor of Ana- 
tomy, Bacteriology, and Pathology. 

W. S. Rankin, M.D., September 1903-May 1909. Dean, 1905. Pro- 
fessor of Embryology, Histology, Bacteriology, and Pathology. 

Louis M. Gaines, B.A., B.S., M.D., September 1905-May 1908. 
Professor of Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology. 

Edgar Edgerton Stewart, M.D., September 1908-May 1912. Profes- 
sor of Anatomy and Pharmacology. 

John Bruce Powers. M.A., M.D., September 1909-May 191*. 

William Turner Carstarphen, B.A., M.D., September 1910-May 1917. 
Professor of Physiology. 

Edward S. Ruth. M.D., September 1912-May 1913. Professor of 
Anatomy. 

Wilbur C. Smith, M.D., September 1913-May 1916. Professor of 
Anatomy. 

Herbert D. Taylor, B.A., M.D., September 191-i-May 1915. Profes- 
sor of Pathology and Bacteriology. 

Roswell E. Flack, B. A., M.D., September 1915-May 1916. Professor 
of Pathology and Bacteriology. 

Eugene A. Case, M.D., September 1916-May 1917. Professor of 
Pathology and Bacteriology. 



/ 

146 THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

G. Alfred Aiken, M.D., September 1916-May 1919. Professor of 
Anatomy, Embryology, and Histology. 

Thurman D. Kitchin, M.D., B.A., September 1917. Dean 1919. 
Professor of Physiology and Pharmacology. 

Luther T. Buchanan, B.A., M.D., September 1917-May 1920. Profes- 
sor of Pathology, Bacteriology, and Histology. 

W. G. Dotson, B.S., September 1915-May 1918. Instructor in Chem- 
istry and Bio-Chemistry. 

WalteT F. Taylor, September 1918, Insjtruc^or in Physiological 
Chemistry. September 1920-May 1927, Professor of Physiological 
Chemistry and Bacteriology. 

Herbert M. Vann, B.S., M.A., M.D., Professor of Anatomy. Septem- 
ber 1919-May 1926. Feb. 1928 — 

Charles Phillips, B.A., M.D., September 1920-May 1927. Professor 
of Pathology and Physical Diagnosis. 

H. N. Gould, Ph.D., September 1920-1922 (3). Professor of Embry- 
ology and Histology. 

C. E. Wilson, B.A., M.A., September 1922, Acting Professor of 
Histology and Embryology. September 1923-May 1925, Professor of 
Histology and Embryology. 

Tyree C. Wyaft, B.A., M.D., September 1924-January 1925. Pro- 
fessor of Pathology and Physical Diagnosis. 

J. J. Tyson, B.A., M.A., September 1921-May 1926. Instructor in 
Histology and Embryology. 

Fountain W. Carroll, B.A., M.A., M.D., September 1925-May 1926. 
Professor of Pathology and Physical Diagnosis. 

O. C. Bradbury, B.S., M.A., Ph.D., September 1925- Professor of 
Histology and Embryology. 

Coy C. Carpenter, B.A., M.D., September 1926- Professor of Pathol- 
ogy and Physical Diagnosis. 

William A. Johnson, B.A., M.D., September 1926-November 1927. 
Professor of Anatomy. 

T. M. Mayfield, B.A., September 1926-May 1927. Instructor in 
Histology and Embryology. 

E. S. King, B.A., M.D., September 1927- Professor of Physiological 
Chemistry and Bacteriology. 

N. A. Hayes, B.A., September 1927- Instructor in Histology and 
Embryology. 

THE FOLLOWING COMPOSE THE FACULTY OF 1928: 

Francis Pendleton Gaines, M.A., Ph.D., President. 

Thurman D. Kitchin, B.A., M.A., M.D., Dean and Professor of 
Physiology and Pharmacology. 

Coy C. Carpenter, B.A., M.D., Professor of Pathology and Physical 
Diagnosis. 

Herbert M. Vann, S.B., M.A., M.D., Professor of Anatomy. 

*W. F. Taylor, B.S., M.A., Professor of Physiological Chemistry 
and Bacteriology. 



GENERAL SESSIONS 147 

O. C. Bradburg, B.S. M.A., Ph.D., Professor of Histology and Em- 
bryology. 

E. S. King, B.A., M.D., Professor of Physiological Chemistry and 
Bacteriology. 

N. A. Hayes, B.A., Instructor in Histology and Embryology. 

H. W. Wright, Assistant in Histology and Embryology. 

M. B. Holoman, Assistant in Physiology and Pharmacology. 

J. N. Reeves, Assistant in Anatomy. 

V. H. Duckett, Assistant in Bacteriology. 

P. T. McBee, Assistant in Pathology. 

L. R. Shaw, Librarian. 

Aim and Scope. The School of Medicine was established in May, 
1902. It combines three years of academic training with two years of 
medical training in such a way as to preserve the. advantages of each, 
and at the same time make it possible for students to graduate with the 
baccalaureate degree and the medical degree in seven years. Upon the 
completion of this work the college confers the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Medicine, which admits the students to the third year in a 
medical college. Thus, time and expense are saved by this combination. 

This school undertakes to teach only those branches of medicine 
which can be taught as thoroughly in the small village as in the large 
city, namely, the laboratory studies in medicine, which form the pure 
science foundation of the professional course. These branches are: 
anatomy, physiology, physiological chemistry, physical diagnosis, minor 
surgery, pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacy, histology, embryology, 
bacteriology, and pathology. 

Certification. Certificates of recommendation for advanced standing in 
medical colleges are given to those students who have received the degree 
of the Bachelor of Science in Medicine, or have completed the two-year 
medical course. Such students are admitted to advanced standing without 
examination in medical colleges proper. 

Equipment. The School of Medicine is adequately equipped with suit- 
able laboratories, apparatus and material. The Alumni Building, con- 
structed especially for laboratory purposes, is 65 by 80 feet, and three 
stories high. In it are the anatomical, physiological, histological, embryo- 
logical, bacteriological, pathological, biological, bio-chemical, pharma- 
cological and toxicological laboratories. Besides these there are private 
laboratories for the professors. 

A Medical Society has been instituted in which, with the cooperation 
of the Departments of Anatomy. Physiology, Pathology, and Pharmacol- 
ogy, students are required to meet for discussion of published papers, 
and to prepare papers on the subject assigned for the month. All students 
have access to the leading scientific journals bearing upon the work of 
the above-mentioned departments. 

A medical library of reference volumes and important journals, main- 
tained by the William Edgar Marshall Memorial Fund and Bryan Spivj 
Bazemore Memorial Fund, is in the medical building in charge of a 
special librarian. Students are required from time to time to abstract 
and discuss important topics treated in the various journals. The Pennell 
Memorial Medical Library is housed in the general library. 



148 THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MEDICINE 

To be entitled to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Medicine the 
student must have completed the following courses: Academic: 

English 1-2, 3-4 (12 hours). Mathematics 1-2 (6 hours). German 
1-2, 5-6; French 1-2, 3-4 (12 semester hours of either language). Bible 
(3 hours). Philosophy 1 (3 hours). Social Science (3 hours). Chemistry 
1-2 (10 hours). Chemistry 3 (3 hours). Chemistry 5-6 (4 hours). Chem- 
istry 8 (2 hours). Chemistry 10 (2 hours). Biology 1-2 (8 hours). Biology 
11, 12 (8 hours). Physics 3-4 or y 2 of Physics 3 and Physics 1-2 (10 
hours). Physical Education, 2 years. Electives, 9 semester hours. 

No courses in elementary foreign languages may be counted among 
these electives. 

Latin A-B, 1-2, or Greek 1-2 may in special cases be substituted for 
the foreign language requirement named above. 

Professional: First Yeai — Anatomy 1, Embryology, Histology, Phy- 
siological Chemistry, Physiology. Second Year — Applied Anatomy, Bac- 
teriology, Hygiene, Pathology, Pharmacology, Physical Diagnosis, Phy- 
siology 2, Surgery Toxicology. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE TO CONSIDER FOUR-YEAR MEDI- 
CAL SCHOOL TO BE ESTABLISHED BY THE 
STATE UNIVERSITY 

(From Transactions of Medical Society of the State of 
North Carolina, 1923, p. 92, 93.) 

The following report was read by Dr. I. W. Faison, Chairman, and, 
upon motion, was accepted: 

Upon the request of Dr. H. W. Chase, President of the University 
of North Carolina, a committee consisting of Drs. I. W. Faison, Chair- 
man, Charlotte; A. J. Crowell, Charlotte; J. T. J. Battle, Greensboro; 
J. H. Shuford, Hickory; C. M. Van Poole, Salisbury; E. T. Dickinson. 
Wilson; L. B. McBrayer, Sanatorium; W. L. Dunn, Asheville; H. H. 
Briggs, Asheville; David T. Tayloe, Washington; J. F. Highsmith, Fay- 
etteville ; J. V. McGougan, Fayetteville ; Foy Roberson, Durham; Fred 
W. Hanes, Winston-Salem; W. P. Holt, Duke; J. Howell Way, Waynes- 
ville; E. J. Wood, Wilmington; E. M. Mclver, Jonesville; Cyrus Thomp- 
son, Jacksonville; W. F. Hargrove, Kinston; J. M. Parrott, Kinston; 
C. O'H. Laughinghouse, Greenville; Ivan P. Battle, Rocky Mount; Thos. 
E. Anderson, Statesville; A. C. Everett, Rockingham; Peter John. Laur- 
inburg; W. H. Cobb, Goldsboro; R. H. Lewis, W. S. Rankin and Hubert 
Royster, Raleigh, was appointed by Dr. J. Wesley Long, president of 
the Medical Society of the State of North Carolina to investigate and 
recommend whether or not a Class A four-year medical school should be 
established in connection with the State University. I called the com- 
mittee to meet at the Yarborough Hotel, in Raleigh, October 10, 1922. 
All the members of the committee were present except six. After varied 
and long discussions, pro and con, we voted unanimously to recommend 
the establishment of a Class A four-year graduating school. 



GENERAL SESSIONS 149 

The question of location was then discussed and a vote taken to 
establish it at the University, by a large majority. With a vote to recon- 
sider and with a fuller discussion, a vote was taken to eliminate the word 
"university," and to recommend, if such a school should be established, 
that wherever so established all four years should be at the same place. 

Some time after the Trustees of the University were called together 
in Raleigh to decide about the school, and that day voted to postpone 
action. A delegation from Charlotte asked to be heard. After a free dis- 
cussion, the Trustees changed their position and agreed to recommend to 
the legislature the establishing of the school at once, with an appropria- 
tion sufficient to put it on its feet. A few days later they met again for 
the purpose of selecting the place, later they met again for the purpose 
of selecting the place to locate the school. Charlotte, Durham, Raleigh, 
Greensboro contended for the location of the school at one of thelse 
places, and the Trustees voted to refer the matter to the legislature. The 
report from Maxwell and Company that the state finances would show a 
$5,000,000 deficit struck the legislature with utter dismay, and with the 
invisible influence of the University people the whole matter was laid 
away in a deadly sleep. I think that if the doctors in North Carolina had 
done their full duty and demanded what I believe to be one of the state's 
greatest needs, the school would have been established, and at the best 
place. I predict that not far in the future the school will be. 

Upon motion of Dr. Cyrus Thompson, the committee was instructed 
to continue its activities and report at the next annual meeting of the 
Society. 

The committee did not seem to function after this. 

It is rather notable that Dr. Foy Roberson of Durham, asked to be 
excused from voting, on the ground that should it be found later that it 
would be more desirable to locate a medical school in Durham, he would 
prefer that he be not recorded as voting against it. He was of course 
excused. 

DUKE UNIVERSITY 

formerly 

TRINITY COLLEGE 

In 1887 a young Pennsylvanian, Dr. John Franklin Crowell, came 
to this state as the president of Trinity College, a small country college 
in Randolph County, organized in 1838 and chartered by the state in 
1853. Largely through Dr. Crowell's efforts the sympathetic interests of 
Mr. Washington Duke and Mr. Julian S. Carr, both citizens of the 
growing young city of Durham, were enlisted and a site and cash for 
new buildings were secured, and the college moved to Durham. 

At the conjoint session of the North Carolina State Board of Health 
with the State Medical Society in Oxford, N. C, the president, Dr. H. T. 
Bahnson (Trans. 1890, page 31) announced that "The Board of Health 
has been applied to in relation, he was happy to say, to the building of 
one educational institution, with request that it inspect and commend or 
condemn, as may be, the plans of that building from a sanitary stand- 
point. He alluded to the new Trinity College to be erected in Durham." 



150 THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

It seems that Duke University known formerly as Trinity College has 
for many years been interested in, and willing to take part in the estab- 
lishment of a first class medical college. The following is perhaps the 
only old record in regard to such willingness and is taken from a copy of 
the State Chronicle, under date of Tuesday, March 24, 1891. Josephus 
Daniels was owner and editor of the Chronicle at the time. 

TRINITY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 

A SCHOOL OF MEDICINE PLANNED BY PROMINENT 

STATE MEDICAL MEN 

It Is to Be a Great School Not to Be Surpassed by Anything of Its Kind 
in the South — the Plan Drawn 

A School of Medicine in North Carolina at last ! 

That is the good news we hear from a recent conference of medical 
men in Durham. 

On Wednesday last, President John F. Crowell, of Trinity College, 
met by appointment in Durham the following prominent medical men 
and held a conference with them: Dr. W. T. Cheatham, of Henderson; 
Supt. William R. Wood, of the State Insane Asylum; Dr. J. M. Hays, 
of Oxford ; Dr. Robert Young, of Concord ; Dr. George W. Long, of Gra- 
ham; Dr. J. W. Byers, of Charlotte; Dr. A. G. Carr, of Durham; and 
Dr. W. H. Whitehead, of Tarboro. 

It was yet in the minds of medical men over the state that Dr. Wil- 
liam R. Wood, superintendent of the State Insane Asylum, had at the 
last two meetings of the Medical Association introduced and advocated 
a resolution to appoint a committee on the part of the Association to 
confer with a like committee from the Board of Trustees of the Uni- 
versity with reference to the establishment of a Department of Medicine. 
It was remembered that this was voted down. 

Acting upon the belief that their hope in that direction was gone, this 
meeting in Durham was held with President Crowell, of Trinity College, 
in order to see how such a department could be established at Trinity 
College in Durham. 

It was decided that a school be established to be called the Medical 
Department of Trinity College. It is to have seven distinct professor- 
ships, as follows: 

Professor of Anatomy 
Professor of Physiology 
Professor of Practice 
Professor of Surgery 
Professor of Materia Medica 
Professor of Obstetrics 
Professor of Chemistry. 

The school shall be first class in every respect, and have nothing but 
first-class instructors, laboratories, etc. 

A first class hospital shall be built in connection with it, and 
President Crowell was instructed to look after the possibility of raising 
the funds to build separate buildings. 



GENERAL SESSIONS 151 

The following prominent medical men have been mentioned as proba- 
ble members of the faculty: Dr. J. M. Hays, of Oxford, Professor of 
Anatomy; Dr. H. T. Bahnson, of Salem, Professor of Surgery; Dr. 
William R. Wood, of Raleigh, Professor of Practice; Rev. W. H. Pegram, 
Professor of Chemistry. The chairs have not been assigned as yet, but 
the following are mentioned to fill the others: Drs. Byers, of Charlotte; 
Cheatham, of Henderson; and Young, of Concord. Dr. A. G. Carr, of 
Durham, will have charge of the dissecting room. 

These are the plans. We hope they will be carried out and with such 
a man as Dr. John Franklin Crowell at its head we can count on a big 
success. 

Every year North Carolina gives $50,000 worth of patronage to 
other states, and she can then save it to herself. 

Such an institution could be made a great success, and we hope 

it will. If the legislature arranges it so that a graduate of that school 

can be granted license on his diploma (as is done by other states) then 

most all of our young men will get their education here. 

Let the good work go on. 

* * * * 

Suffice it to say that the School of Medicine did not materialize at 
that time. 

Prior to this Dr. S. D. Booth of Oxford, at session of the Medical 
Society of the State of North Carolina. 1885, offered a resolution looking 
toward the establishment of a Medical Department at the University of 
North Carolina. 

Much of interest in regard to the establishment of a Medical Depart- 
ment in connection with Trinity College is found in the Transactions of 
1891 session. 

The following are extracts from the president's address by Dr. R. H. 
Lewis : 

If the legislature arranges so that a graduate of that school can be 
granted license on his diploma (as is done by other states), then most 
all of our young men will get their education here. "Let the good work 
go on." 

I have been informed by Dr. Bahnson, whose name has been associ- 
ated with the enterprise, that he would not consent to even consider — 
should it be made to him — a proposition to join in the proposed school 
except upon the assurance that it was to be only preparatory. I have also 
read the editorial in the April N. Y. Medical Journal saying that its 
reports as to the character of the school were "somewhat exaggerated," 
but these statements are not authoritative enough to relieve me the duty 
of at least bringing the matter before you. Still they do relieve the situa- 
tion to a certain extent, so that what I shall have to say on the subject is 
based on a hypothesis. If, then, these reports represent at all correctly 
the intents of the authorities of Trinity College, I cannot, as a faithful 
sentinel on the watch-tower, say, "all's well." On the contrary, I believe 
conscientiously that I would be derelict were I not to sound the alarm. 

At the New Bern meeting the committee to which was referred the 
resolution to take steps for the establishment of a Medical Department 
at the University of the state, made the following report: * * * 
That in their opinion, there is no necessity for the addition of a Medical 



152 THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Department to the State University, and that, at present, the scheme is 
utterly impracticable. It is, furthermore, the opinion of the undersigned 
that neither the interest in the profession nor the public would be 
advanced by the establishment of such a department. In a word, that 
the interest of the profession and the public would be more enhanceed 
by the support of a few good schools than by the establishment of many 
bad ones. 

(Signed) 

C. J. O'Hagan, 
T. D. Haigh, 
H. T. Bahnson, 
J. Graham. 

Although much interested in the success and renown of the University, 
I thoroughly endorsed that report, and since that time I have been only 
the more confirmed in my opinion that it was eminently wise and is as 
applicable now as then. 

It is so self-evident that location in a large city is a sine qua non to 
a first class Medical School granting diplomas, that I will not take up 
your time arguing the matter. North Carolina has no such city and it 
therefore follows that the establishment of a school of such pretensions 
within our borders is to be deprecated. 

The mere suggestion of applying to the legislature for a change in 
our laws to exempt the graduates of that, or any other Medical School, 
from examination by the Board of Medical Examiners of the State, 
should fill us with apprehension. By the passage of such amendment, 
practically all that we have accomplished in the way of legislation for 
the advancement of the profession in the past thirty years would at one 
shot be obliterated. Our dear old state, that, as far as results are con- 
cerned, was the pioneer in the movement to regulate the practice of 
medicine by law, by having those offering their services to her people 
passed upon by a disinterested, and therefore a purely unprejudiced 
board would lose her proud position in the very forefront of the line 
of medical progress and be relegated to the rear. Any movement looking 
to that end would probably meet with so disastrous and earnest an oppo- 
sition on the part of the best friends of real medical advancement as to 
insure its defeat; but the mere agitation of the subject before the legis- 
lature would be fraught with danger. The laity neither understand nor 
appreciate, as they ought, the value to them, as well as to ourselves, of 
our license law ; the talk of keeping money in the state is mighty with 
the average legislature, the school would have its special funds, and 
there would surely be a number who, for one cause or another, would 
be against all restrictions on the practice of medicine ; and the danger 
of the passage of the amendment, or a repeal of the whole statute, let 
me assure you, fellow T -members, would not be an imaginary one. 

I do not believe that the gentlemen whose names have been associated 
with the undertaking would knowingly do aught to impune the profession. 
Nor can the Society claim the right to prescribe the character of the 
enterprise its members may undertake, provided they are ethical; still, 
there can certainly be no question as to the propriety and advisability 
of an expression of opinion on anything likely to place in jeopardy the 



GENERAL SESSIONS 153 

valuable results of years of effort on its part. And just at this juncture, 
it would not only be proper, but wise (it certainly can do no harm and 
it might do good), for the Society, in a suitably framed resolution, to 
emphatically pronounce against the establishment in our state of anything 
in the way of a medical school more pretentious than a purely and exclu- 
sively preparatory one, embodying in its curriculum the fundamental 
branches of anatomy, physiology, materia medica, and chemistry, with 
the sciences collateral to medicine. A school of this character at Trinity 
would of course be as unobjectionable as those now in existence. In the 
resolution suggested it would also be well to incorporate a formal ex- 
pression of opinion as to the minimum facilities of instruction and re- 
quirements for graduation on the part of the college that would receive 
the endorsement and support of the Society. 

Dr. Crowell, president of Trinity College, was accorded the privilege 
of addressing the State Medical Society in regard to reference made by 
President Lewis in annual address to Medical Department at Trinity, 
said: 

He, by virtue of his office, was pledged to elevate the standard of 
education for all classes of the people in North Carolina. Understanding 
that the Medical Society was not satisfied, et cetera, he had asked several 
doctors to meet with him to talk the matter over. Which was done. No 
recommendation made. Would need ample endorsement. 

Dr. S. D. Booth said the society was opposed to "one horse" medical 
school. 

Dr. George W. Long — for above referenced committee, reported: 

First, we unanimously agreed that we would not consider the propo- 
sition to establish the Medical Department (above referred to) unless 
sufficient endowment was guaranteed, the income from which would be 
ample to pay the salaries of the profession and all the expense of said 
Medical Department without in any way depending on fees from students. 

Second, we did not propose to in any way amend the Medical Laws of 
North Carolina, but on the contrary, emphatically said that any man 
receiving a diploma from said Medical College should be abundantly able 
to meet all requirements of the Board of Medical Examiners. 

Third, as the statement has been made on the floor of this Medical 
Society, that North Carolina did not possess the talent to fill the pro- 
fessorships, we desire to state further, that this conference in no way 
intimated from what quarter of the globe the professors should be 
chosen, but distinctly said that, with sufficient endowment, the best ta'ent 
could and should be commanded. 

We respectfully submit the report and ask the Medical Society of the 
State of North Carolina to make a record of the same. 

(Signed) 

Geo. W. Long 
Robt. S. Young 
Wm. R. Wood 
W. T. Cheatham 
J. M. Hays 
A. G. Carr. 



154 THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

REPORT ON PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 

Sec. 4. While we heartily commend the establishment of preparatory 
school of medicine at convenient points in our state, we believe it is 
inexpedient and averse to the best interests of the profession to coun- 
tenance the organization of a college of medicine in the state unless it 
can afford to its students advantages in every way equal to those afforded 
by the best schools in the large cities of our country. 

W. P. Beall 
J. Howell Way 
Frank W. Brown 

Committee. 

About the latter part of 1920 or early part of 1921, Dr. W. P. Few, 
who was then the President of Trinity College, now Duke University, 
had a conference with Mr. George W. Watts of Durham, looking toward 
the establishment of a medical school, using Watt's Hospital in Durham 
for clinical teaching, and presumably the school of medicine to be 
operated by Trinity College. This would no doubt have called for the 
great enlargement of Watts' Hospital. Mr. Watts' untimely death pre- 
cluded further consideration of this plan. While the thinking men both 
in and out of the medical profession were agreed on the necessity of a 
four-year medical school in North Carolina, and were almost unanimous 
in the belief that it should be established in connection with the State 
University, and while judging from the report made by Dr. I. W. Faison, 
chairman of a committee from the State Medical Society quoted else- 
where, the authorities of the University, including the trustees, were 
apparently unwilling to announce themselves as favoring it and as being 
ready to move. The president of Duke University, then Trinity College, 
Dr. W. P. Few, was willing and ready to cooperate to the fullest, as 
evidenced by a letter to Mr. John Sprunt Hill, who was chairman of 
the Medical School Committee of the Durham Chamber of Commerce, 
president of the Board of Directors of Watts' Hospital and a member of 
the Board of Trustees of the University. The letter follows: 

February 8, 1923. 
Mr. John Sprunt Hill 

Durham, North Carolina 
Dear Mr. Hill: 

I am writing to you as chairman of the Medical School Committee 
of the Durham Chamber of Commerce and President of the Board 
of Trustees of the Watts Hospital. The "Durham plan" for a medical 
school, as I understand the plan, has included the undertaking to raise 
$50,000 a year for running expenses. This was to be just a first step 
towards a large medical school to which the General Assembly would be 
asked now or later to authorize the issue of $4,000,000 in bonds or 
provide the equivalent in annual appropriations to be available for the 
school when an equal amount is secured from other sources. And the 
medical school was to be controlled by a board of fifteen trustees to be 
appointed by the governor of the state without restrictions. 



GENERAL SESSIONS 155 

As you know, it has been announced that the undertaking to raise 
$500,000 towards a small beginning of a medical school has been aban- 
doned; and it may not seem to you to be wise to try to go on with the 
larger undertaking contemplated in the "Durham plan." I therefore 
hope that you, your committee, and your trustees will feel free to offer 
to the trustees of the University of North Carolina for their medical 
department the cooperation of the Watts Hospital and whatever else you 
may have to offer, if that seems to be the wise course to pursue. 

While as of course you know, this is now purely a Durham plan and 
Trinity College has nothing whatever to do with it, I cannot let this 
occasion go by without telling you how deeply I appreciate your cooper- 
ation with me in all that I have tried to do for medical education, and 
how deeply I appreciate the cooperation of the citizens of Durham 
whenever they have had opportunity to cooperate. 

I am just as willing now as I have ever been to work for a first class 
medical school. And I will be completely loyal to the larger Durham 
plan until it succeeds or is finally thrown aside. 

Since there is considerable public interest in the subject, I am today 
giving the substance of this letter to the state press. 

With sentiments of personal esteem and sincere good wishes, I am 
Cordially yours, 
Copies to: (Signed) W. P. Few. 

Mr. M. E. Newsom , 

Governor Morrison 

With so much interest throughout the state in the establishment of 
a four year medical college, and with things happening so rapidly or 
perhaps I should say with the changing of view points and policies so 
rapidly, it was but natural that rumors would spread quickly and widely, 
and so President Few felt the need of making a public statement in 
regard to his recent attitude and actions in connection therewith. And so 
President W. P. Few authorized a brief statement which is essentially 
the same as a letter he sent December 22, 1922, to editorial writers of 
the state concerning the proposed medical school for North Carolina. 

The statement follows : 

"My interest in a medical school has brought an amount and kind of 
publicity that I was not prepared for. It is true that I had been thinking 
about a medical school for several years and have for some time had plans 
in which I have sought to interest others. But before these plans matured 
another movement for a medical school was started — this one by the 
University of North Carolina. 

"It then occurred to me that since we needed one medical school but 
not two, it might be well to see if we could assure success for one good 
medical school by uniting the two movements. I talked with President 
Chase and Governor Morrison about this possibility and they both 
thought well of it, and I have talked with two committees appointed to 
deal with this whole problem. 

"I have said that I thought to build and found a first class medical 
school would require a minimum of eight million dollars, and I have 



156 THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

expressed by belief that the goal might be reached if a sound plan could 
be agreed upon. I stated to the committee that if a workable plan of 
cooperation between the University of North Carolina and Trinity College 
could be found, I would undertake to secure one half of the amount. 

"I have never said that I had the money, but that I believed I could 
raise it, and I would not have made such a statement if I had not had 
good reason to believe that in due time I could succeed in the under- 
taking." 

Another interesting angle is that when the committee of 22 physicians 
from the State Medical Society to consider the four year Medical School, 
heretofore referred to, was about to vote on the matter and recommend 
that it be established at the State University, by an almost unanimous 
vote, Dr. Foy Roberson of Durham asked to be excused from voting for 
the reason that should it later turn out that the Medical School would be 
established in Durham, he would not like to be on record as having voted 
against it. He was of course excused. 

The fact that the four year Medical School at the University was 
abandoned, at least until some indefinite time in the far distant future, 
did not deter President Few for he had seen his own tentative plans 
abandoned in the past, but his fertile brain kept its guns constantly 
trained on the idea, and his visions materialized on December 11, 1924, 
when the late James Benjamin Duke created the Duke foundation, and 
provided that four million dollars should be used for the erection of 
buildings for the Medical School and Hospital, and also provided ample 
income for maintenance, the exact amount to be allocated by the trus- 
tees of this foundation from time to time. 

Ground was broken for these buildings August 1927. On January 20, 
1927, Dr. Wilburt C. Davison, vice dean of John Hopkins and Professor 
of Pediatrics in that great Medical School, was selected Dean of the 
Medical School of Duke University, and entered upon his duties immedi- 
ately. The hospital in connection with Duke University to be used for 
teaching clinical medicine will provide about 400 beds. It is hoped that 
the School of Medicine and the Hospital will be ready to open by October 
1930. 

The President and Trustees of Duke University and the Dean of its 
Medical School have a most wonderful opportunity and likewise a great 
responsibility. Unhampered by buildings and equipment out of date, 
unhampered by members of faculty that might be equally out of date, 
with ample money for construction and maintenance, they are com- 
missioned to build de novo the greatest and best Medical School in the 
world. All peoples and nations of the world, and particularly those of us 
in the Carolinas are to be congratulated. And thus materializes the vision, 
projected by much thought and much study, of one of the great men of 
our state, Dr. W. P. Few, President of Duke University, and his worthy 
predecessor, Dr. John Franklin Crowell. 






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GAYLORD BROS. Inc. 

Syracuse, N.Y. 

Stockton, Calif. 





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